Full text: The Department of Labor and Industry

lishments employing less than five workers could be omitted because of 
their relative unimportance, but even with these various exclusions the 
Bureau of Statisties is now compiling the accident experience monthly 
for approximately 25,000 establishments, more than two-thirds of which 
are manufacturing plants. By providing the Bureau of Inspection with 
current information concerning the accident experience in these estab- 
lishments, the work of the inspector is concentrated primarily on the 
individual establishments having bad accident records, instead of fol- 
lowing the system of routine inspections by block areas previously in 
effect. The new system is working very satisfactorily and is produeing 
good results in accident prevention work. The attention of the in- 
spectors is now directed more immediately to places where the need 
for their services is greatest. 
Two principal forms of employment statisties are compiled by the 
Department. First is the record of activities of the State Employment 
sffices, and second is the reports on volume of employment and wage 
payments secured monthly from approximately 900 manufacturing es- 
tablishments and construction firms in the State. 
The reports of activities of State Employment offices measure employ- 
ment in three ways. First, they record the number of applicants for 
smployment. This registration of applications for employment gives 
a fairly accurate picture of the condition of the labor market at any 
given time or in any locality. The second measure of employment is 
the record of the number and class of employes needed by employers. 
This second record serves to confirm facts shown in the application 
record ; for usually when work is plentiful, applicants for employment 
are few and demands from employers for help are high; and inversely 
when work is scarce, applicants for employment fairly besiege the em- 
ployment offices, while demands from employers for help are few. The 
third part of the Employment Bureau records that give an insight 
into employment conditions is the report of placements made. 
The second class of employment information is obtained directly from 
individual industrial concerns by means of questionnaires sent to them 
monthly, asking for a report of their employment and payroll figures 
for the current month. Through a cooperative agreement this work 
is performed jointly by the Third Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia 
and this Bureau. Collection of this class of employment data was 
begun in January, 1923, from about one-half of the 900 firms that are 
now reporting. These employment figures represent approximately 30 
per cent of the total manufacturing and construction employment in the 
Commonwealth and serve as fairly sensitive indices of employment and 
earnings for those two industries. 
The Bureau has been able to do little in the matter of wage studies. 
Unless wages and wage rates are fixed by definite agreement, it is 
always difficult to determine actual earnings in a given industry or 
occupation. Where wage rates are fixed by definite agreement, the 
assembling and compiling of wage rates is comparatively easy. 
The most complete wage study made by the Bureau is the annual 
compilation of the rates of wages and hours of labor as shown by

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