Full text: Modern business geography

Geographical Conditions of Manufacture 239 
tana, and Leadville, Colorado. At important quarries like those at 
Quincy in Massachusetts and Barre in Vermont, many men are en- 
gaged in chipping the huge rough blocks of granite and marble into 
symmetrical forms for buildings or monuments. 
Near the forests one is likely to come upon sawmills, wood- 
pulp mills, and possibly woodworking and furniture factories. Near 
southern pine forests the turpentine industry and charcoal burning 
are usually found. 
The raw materials from mines, quarries, and forests are almost 
all bulky. If rough blocks of granite, unsmelted zinc or lead ores, 
or undressed logs were shipped long distances, large sums would have 
to be paid for freight on worthless material which is thrown away in 
the processes of manufacturing. Hence bulky as well as perishable 
raw materials tend to cause manufacturing to be located close to their 
place of origin. 
How transportation facilities favor the location of manufacturing 
industries. Aside from energetic people, transportation probably 
does more than any other one factor to determine the location of 
manufacturing industries. A great city like New York, Chicago, or 
London is the most inviting place for many industries, not only be- 
cause the dense population furnishes a large market which can be 
reached with little transportation, but because there are good facilities 
for shipping to more distant points. Moreover, such facilities do much 
to determine how rapidly a city grows. For example, in 1790 New 
York with 33,000 people was only six times as large as New London, 
Connecticut, which had 5,150, and seven times as large as New Haven, 
which had 4,500. Today New London is only four times as populous 
as it was in 1790, New Haven has increased thirty-fold, and New 
York one hundred and eighty fold. New London has a fairly good 
harbor, but its communications inland are poor because the country 
is hilly. New Haven has a poor, shallow harbor, but the valley lead- 
ing northward has made the city an important railroad center. New 
York not only has a superb harbor, but lies at the end of a remarkable 
valley affording an outlet from the rich interior of a great country. 
When industries began to grow, New York attracted the manufacturer 
because there he could so easily obtain his raw materials and ship his 
products to other places. The establishment of each industry made the 
city more inviting for others, because the market and labor supply were 
correspondingly enlarged, and the facilities for transportation improved. 
Today the goods manufactured in New York and its immediate vicinity 
amount to an eighth of all the goods made in the United States.

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