Full text: Modern business geography

Modern Business Geography 
flour milling, and smelting, — but are also beginning to produce more 
complex manufactured goods, such as farm machinery, which they have 
hitherto taken in considerable quantities from the United States. If 
the number of people were greater, Australia and New Zealand might 
soon become important manufacturing regions. 
South American industries. In the temperate parts of South Amer- 
ica, the countries of Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay display conditions 
somewhat like those of Australia, but are not quite so advanced in- 
dustrially. Argentina and Uruguay thus far have done little manu- 
facturing except in preparing cereals and meat for the market. Chile, 
with coal, iron, and copper within easy reach, has established steel 
works at Corral and chemical works to produce iodine and borate of 
lime from the famous Chilean nitrates. 
India and China. The two most populous regions of Asia, India 
and China, are in a much more backward stage of manufacturing than 
are the countries hitherto discussed. In India a good deal is said about 
the cotton and jute factories, which employ about a quarter of a mil- 
lion people apiece. But the goods made there are practically all of 
the coarsest kind, while the total number of persons engaged in manu- 
facturing among the entire 315,000,000 people of India is less than 
among the 9,000,000 of Pennsylvania. 
Since manufacturing in China has not been fostered by a progressive 
government such as that of the British in India, it is even less devel- 
oped than in India. Nevertheless, enormous deposits of coal and iron, 
a vast and marvellously hardworking population, and a huge home 
market, even though the people are poor, are conditions highly favor- 
able to manufacturing. The great question is whether the Chinese 
have the initiative and inventiveness to carry on the complicated 
business of manufacturing without depending on foreigners. 
Why oriental countries excel in handmade goods. Thus far we 
have been considering only the kinds of manufactures made by machines. 
But handmade goods, such as the beautiful oriental rugs of Turkey 
and Persia, also enter into the world’s commerce. Their quantity is 
indeed very small compared with the others, but their beauty often 
gives them unusual importance. They are produced largely in orien- 
tal countries, partly because those countries, through long centuries 
of development, have acquired great skill in certain lines, and partly 
because western nations rarely have the patience to work long and 
painstakingly on articles which might be made almost as well by ma- 
chines and which rarely bring a price proportional to the work spent on 

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