Full text: Iceland 1930

ween onerous duties, and their art suffered proportionately. The lives 
of these old artists have recently been written and published in two 
handy volumes (Islenzkir lislamenn, i. e. Icelandic Artists, by M. 
In the present century the two best known painlers are Théravinn 
Thorliksson (1867—1924) and Asgrimur Jénsson (b. 1876), both espe- 
cially noteworthy as painters of Icelandic landscapes, in which branch 
they are pioneers. 
In 1928 paintings by Icelandic artists were exhibited in Copenhagen, 
Berlin, Hamburg, Liibeck and elsewhere, and highly praised by art 
critics. The works exhibited were by the following artists: Asgr. Jéns- 
son, Finnur Jénsson, Gudmundur Einarsson, Gudmundur Thorsteins- 
son, Gunnlaugur Bléndal, Johs. S. Kjarval, Jén Stef4nsson, J6n Thor- 
‘eifsson, Miss Jiliana Sveinsdéitir, and Mrs. Kristin Jénsdéttir. 
Sculpture. Einar Jonsson (1874—) is Iceland's first and greatest 
sculptor. He has — inter alia — made monuments of Jénas Hall- 
grimsson, Jén SigurBsson, and Ingélfur Arnarson (the first colonist of 
Iceland), all in Reykjavik. A statue by him of Thorfinnur Karlsefni, 
an [celander, the first white man who came to America with a view 
to settling there, was unveiled in Philadelphia in 1920. A book con- 
taining fine reproductions of Jénsson's works together with an ap- 
preciation of the principles of his art has recently been published in 
Noteworthy among the younger sculptors are: Asmundur Sveinsson, 
Gudmundur Einarsson (also a painter), RikharBur Jénsson, and Miss 
Nina Samundsson. 
Music. Singing was found in Iceland in the earliest times, and 
sometimes, when the scalds recited their poems, they are said to have 
sung them, 
In the ninth century or about the time when Iceland began to be 
colonized, we hear of the first attempts made at polyphonic song; the 
melody was, sung in consecutive or parallel fifths and octaves. The 
theory of harmony which arose from these experiments has now alto- 
gether discarded parallel fifths, but in Iceland this system has been 
preserved almost down to the present dav in the so-called duef- or 
During the Roman Catholic era candidates for orders had to be 
rained in music, i. e. the Gregorian Chant of the Roman Catholic 
Church. After the Reformation this instruction was, indeed, continued 
under the name of Grallara-séngur (from: Graduale), but it soon fell

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