Full text: Iceland 1930

berty to combine; and freedom of religion. For though the Lutheran 
Church is the Established Church of Iceland, the constitution express- 
ly states, that nobody shall forfeit any part of his civil rights or his 
rights as a subject of the State for his religious opinions, and it is 
permitted to form societies for divine worship with such organization 
as may best suit the conscience of the members, provided nothing is 
done contrary to good morals and the general rules of conduct. The 
constitution forbids unlawful arrests, deprivation of property, and do- 
miciliary visits; it guarantees industrial liberty, provides parish relief 
for those who are unable to earn their bread, and maintenance and 
education for destitude children. It forbids the enactment of laws con- 
ferring exclusive privileges on nobility, title, and rank, and prescribes 
that foreigners can be naturalized only by an act of parliament, and 
that their right to acquire real estate in the country shall be settled by 
law. On the other hand it provides that the defence of the country is 
obligatory on every man able to carry arms, according fo a system 
which may later be fixed by law. As yet Iceland has no military force 
and has declared itself permanently neutral. 
The king wields the highest administrative power; but his power 
is exercised by the ministers who are responsible for the conduct of 
affairs. There are three ministries with a minister at the head of each. 
The apportionment of business among the three ministries is as follows: 
a. The Ministry of Justice and Church Affairs includes: The civil 
and criminal administration of justice; the police; the control of pri- 
sons; the granting of licences for lawsuits; matters relating to family- 
rights; inheritance; personal rights; rights of property; ecclesiastical 
affairs; public health; education (except agricultural schools); elections 
to Althingi, and the publishing of the official Gazette. 
b. The Ministry of Industrial Affairs and Communications. This 
ministry has charge of all matters relating to industries, as farming; 
fisheries; trades; handicrafts; communications; roads; postal, telegraph, 
and telephone services; matters respecting local government; and 
public domains. 
¢. The Ministrv of Finance. This ministry has under its supervision: 
The country’s financial affairs in general: taxes and customs: adminis-

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