Full text: Forced labour in Africa

called upon to pay out of that to inland revenue, while a 
European did not pay any personal tax until he was 
earning £300 and, if married, £400. The Native was 
also taxed far more heavily indirectly through Customs 
Whatever the motives may have been for the imposi- 
tion of heavier taxation upon Natives than upon Euro- 
peans, the effect is to drive the Natives to earn more money 
by working for Europeans. The poll tax in certain 
circumstances is in effect a labour tax. 
On 10th Dec., 1929, Ons Vaderland announced (Reuter, 
Pretoria) that before the end of the year convict labour 
would be made available for farmers. It was estimated 
that about 3,000 convicts would be dispatched in order to 
perform ordinary farm work. 
On 9th January, 1930, Reuter Pretoria reported “ In an 
official statement to-day dealing with the employment 
of prisoners for farm labour, the Director of Prisons 
states that farmers requiring prison labour must take 
gangs of not less than 25 for a period of three months. 
The price of this labour is 1s. 6d. per unit per day. If, 
however, the employer is willing to supply food and 
accommodation the cost is reduced to one shilling per 
unit per day. . . .. In the event of farmers being unable to 
employ 25 prisoners, arrangements can be made in 
one area for central accommodation for a gang of 25, 
which may be divided up between a number of farms, 
provided that they are within reasonable distance of the 
accommodation provided.” 
It is obvious that the men whom it is proposed to dis- 
tribute in this casual fashion among the farmers are not 
criminals in the ordinary sense of the term. For what 
offences are these men in prison ? 
At a public meeting in East London on 26th Sep- 
tember last Mr. Ballinger, European adviser to the South

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