Full text: Religion, colonising & trade

to whom King Chatles in 1663 made the famous 
grant of Carolina. 
Another of these patentees was the foremost states- 
man of the reign in the matter of extending and 
improving the Empire. This was Ashley Cooper, 
first Earl of Shaftesbury. He had a hereditary con- 
nexion with the Elizabethans, for his mothet’s father, 
Anthony Ashley, who was clerk to the Privy Council, 
was deputed by the Government to accompany in a 
civil capacity the famous expedition to Cadiz in 1596, 
when Essex was in command on land, Lord Charles 
Howard on sea, and Sir Walter Raleigh was of the 
company. Ashley, among others, was knighted on this 
occasion. From the very beginning of the reign 
of Charles II, his grandson was most active in 
oversea matters. He was a member of the Council of 
Plantations which was called together in the first year 
of the reign; he was one of the grantees both of 
Carolina and of the Bahamas, and in either case seems 
to have been the leading man among the proprietors ; 
he was a member of the African and Hudson Bay 
Companies ; and from 1672 to 1676 he was president 
of a United Council of Trade and Plantations, of which 
John Locke became secretary in 1673. With Shaftes- 
bury and Locke combined, there was some semblance 
of an able Secretary of State for the Colonies, guided 
in counsel and in draftsmanship by a singularly 
valuable permanent secretary. Locke first met 
Shaftesbury at Oxford in 1666, and became a close 
friend and inmate of his house in 1667. The fre- 
quency of his handwriting in the Shaftesbury papers 
shows that, as a secretary, especially on the adminis-

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