CHAPTER II COMPLETE PROHIBITION AND ITS EFFECTS The Gradual Development of the Prohibition Movement in the United States—The Effects of National Prohibition on Alcohol Consumption—The Effects of National Prohibition on Drunken- ness and Deaths from Alcoholism—The Effects of National Prohibition on Crime—The Economic Effects of National Prohibition—The Effects of National Prohibition on Respect for the Law—What of the Future P—Prohibition in Finland. THE GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROHIBITION MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES. OF the numerous countries which have made experi- ments in prohibition, only two, the United States of America and Finland, have legalised and adopted complete prohibition, and retain it to the present day. In each country the system has now been in force for several years, so that we are able to judge to some extent not only the immediate effects, but what are likely to be the effects in future years. The prohibition movement in the United States is by no means a modern development. The State of Maine adopted complete prohibition as long ago as 1851, whilst Kansas followed suit in 1880. Four other States’ introduced it between 1907 and 1909, and another twenty-seven between 1912 and 1919. Hence no less than thirty-three out of the forty-eight States had adopted it prior to the introduction of national prohibition.* In consequence, over 95 per * ¢ Alliance Year Beuak," 1924, p- 1538.