COMPLETE PROHIBITION 9 cent. of the total area of the United States and 68 per cent. of the total population were under no-licence laws on January 16, 1920, when the Eighteenth Amendment to the American Constitution, with the accompanying Volstead Enforcement Act, came into operation. Prohibition had, as a matter of fact, been in operation for six months previously, owing to the special war-time legislation, whilst all brewing of beer had been stopped for over two years (viz., from December 1, 1917), in consequence of the shortage of food in Europe.* This restrictive action of the United States contrasted very favourably with our own, for we continued to brew about a third of our pre-war supply of beer, even when the sinking of food-carrying ships by submarines was at its worst. According to the Eighteenth Amendment, ‘the manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the juris- diction thereof for beverage purposes, is hereby pro- hibited.” It was laid down that the Amendment would lapse unless thirty-six out of the forty-eight States ratified it within seven years, but as a matter of fact forty-six States have already ratified. Connecticut and Rhode Island alone failed to do so, but these two States contain less than a fiftieth of the total population of the United States. [ntoxicating liquor was defined to include any liquid fit for beverage purposes which contained more than o°5 per cent. of alcohol by volume. The liquor trade was not recognised to possess any vested interests, * Cf. P. W. Wilson, “After Two Years.” London, 1922, Dp. 28.