METHODS OF CONTROL 73 that certain measures were very much more important than others in the production of the sum-total of effects. THE ActuAL EFFECTS PRODUCED. Before passing on to discuss the methods of control, it will be well to describe briefly the cycle of changes observed in the consumption of alcohol before, during, and after the war, and its effects on sobriety. It is convenient to take as a standard a mean of the 1912 and 1913 figures, and to record the data of subsequent years in terms of this standard, taken as 100. And firstly, what measure are we to take of the alcohol consumed ? The simplest one is to adopt the per capita consumption of alcohol, but this takes no account of the fact that spirits, in proportion to the alcohol they contain, are very much more intoxicating than beer. In 1912 and 1913 the average consumption in the United Kingdom was 27:3 gallons of beer and 0:685 gallon of spirits. Roughly speaking, one may say that the quantity of beer mentioned contains five times more alcohol than the spirits, whilst the beer consumed in 1917 and 1918 contained four times more alcohol than the spirits. Yet it probably accounts for less than half of all the drunkenness. An enquiry was made by the Central Control Board during the war* on the relative importance of beer and spirits in the causation of drunkenness, and 1,505 persons (1,032 males and 473 females) charged with drunkenness in London and fourteen other large cities in England were questioned. Intoxication was attributed to beer alone * Cf.‘ Alcohol: Its Action on the Human Organism.” 1923, p. 11 5,