Full text: Report on an enquiry into wages and hours of labour in the cotton mill industry, 1926

would be of no value in view of the differences in the number of working 
days in the two haptas selected for each mill, not only for different 
sccupations but also for the same occupations, 
83. The figures for average daily earnings in different occupations 
at each centre are the only figures that can be uniformly presented for all 
centres. The figures were arrived at by including all allowances of a 
normal character such as earnings on basic rates, additions for dearness 
allowances, bonuses for good attendance, and, in the case of the Sholapur 
mills, the wages earned from the grant of ““ grace ”” days and the benefit 
gained from the grain concession. Farnings of an abnormal character such 
as those derived from overtime or double substitute work were excluded. 
34. With regard to the average monthly earnings for all workers, 
figures similar to those worked out for Bombay have also been worked 
out for Sholapur, because the wage period in both the mills included in 
the Enquiry for that centre covered a full calendar month, but it must be 
emphasized that in India where the number of working days varies from 
month to month the average monthly earnings over a period of a year may 
be substantially less than the earnings for a single month obtained from 
a census which takes a month of 31 days with 27 working days in the 
month. The most valuable figures therefore are those for average daily 
earnings. Moreover, the term “ average monthly earnings ” has no real 
meaning in Ahmedabad on account of the existence at that centre of 
haptas or wage periods varying from 14 to 16 days and containing 11 to 
14 working days in the period. 
35. After the Census had been taken at Sholapur it was found that 
one mill worked 27 days and the other only 26. Actually therefore the 
average monthly earnings of full-time workers for Sholapur are based on 
a month of 267 working days as compared with 27 in Bombay. If itis 
desired to ascertain what the average monthly earnings of full time 
workers would be for a uniform month of 27 working days, the daily 
average earnings should be multiplied by 27. This has actually been 
done in the case of Ahmedabad where the hapte system precludes the 
taking of the month as a basis. It is therefore necessary to emphasize 
that the figures of “ possible earnings for a month of 27 working days 
are not the result of tabulations from the actual returns for a month. 
They are merely intended to show what earnings might have been for 
a calendar month of 27 working days had the system of wage payments in 
Ahmedabad been based on that obtaining in Bombay and Sholapur, 
36. For the same reason the frequency tables have been based on 
monthly earnings in the case of Bombay and Sholapur and on daily 
earnings in the case of Ahmedabad. 
37. With regard to the tables for frequencies of attendance 
according to the number of days worked by individual operatives, it 
has only been possible to prepare these for Bombay. To prepare similar 
tables for Ahmedabad and Sholapur would have involved immense labour 
owing to the mills having different maxima for the number of working 
days in two haptas ; and, in the case of Sholapur. to the fact that the 
maximum was different in each mill, 
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