Full text: Modern business geography

The Use of Ships 
How the cargoes of tramps and liners differ. During the next year 
pur steamer may call at entirely different ports and handle entirely 
different cargoes, such as ores, coal, china clay, nitrate of soda, hemp, 
rice, and corn. Notice that these are all bulky raw commodities of 
low value in proportion to their weight. Hence they are likely to be 
shipped in great quantities, and a ship can often get a cargo composed 
of only a single product. 
The liner, unlike the tramp, carries small quantities of a great 
variety of goods, besides passengers and mail. These are often 
manufactured goods, which are usually boxed for shipping and are of 
high value for their weight. They are collected from many different 
points and have many destinations. The principal routes for liners 
are between the chief ports of western Europe and (1) the northeast- 
ern ports of the United States, especially New York, (2) Buenos Aires 
and Rio de Janeiro, and (3) Asiatic ports and Australia via Suez. Less 
frequented liner routes run from (4) the Pacific ports of the United 
States to Japan and China, and (5) the eastern United States to east- 
ern South America (Fig. 117). 
Manufacturing countries, like England and Germany, need liners to 
carry away their finished products, and tramps to bring them food 
and raw materials. New countries, like Argentina, Australia, and 
South Africa, whose products are chiefly raw materials, need liners to 
bring them a variety of manufactured goods, and tramps to take away 
their exportc 
tie RR tt iit 
Sanadian National Ratlways 
Fic. 136. At the lake ports the grain ships are loaded from the grain elevators by means of pipes 
through which the grain runs directlv into the hold of the ship.

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